For now, such as function our economies, oil is indispensable as a source of energy.
And yet, it will come when it will be exhausted and we will go without and we will have to find other sources of energy at a reasonable cost and in abundance.
The use of others sources of energy can also increase the lifespan of the oil to be used for more noble uses than combustion.


New heat engine that consumes no fuel
driven by a hot source and a cold source
and
a new means to produce electricity






   Heat pumps extract energy from the environment. But such machines require for their operation a significant amount of energy often from a power network.

   Stirling engines are heat engines that operate with a temperature difference between two fluids.
   But to achieve an efficient operation, this temperature difference must be high and the pressure in the engine, about 150 bar, hence the need to implement expensive technology.




   The new engine produces energy instead of consuming and it works with large as with low temperature differences and low pressures.

The watertight chamber contains here a fluid that expands and contracts alternately depending on whether the fluid that surrounds it is hotter then colder than the previous fluid alternately provided by the distributor of entry.

   These fluids at different temperatures can be, in the basic version, first ambient air heated by thermal solar panels and other air at temperature almost constant provided by a Canadian well.

   A Canadian well produces air at a temperature ranging from about 13°C to 15°C (55°F to
59°F) during all the year if the pipes are buried 1.5 to 2 meters minimum.
   This is thus geothermal energy so virtually inexhaustible on a human scale.

We can use the air in the exchanger but also water, steam or a specific fluid.

   The piston will move rather slowly, but the propellers of large wind turbines turn slowly (about 15 rpm) and as yet they generate electricity with a series of gears that increase the speed of rotation that drives the alternator.
The animation runs at 15 rpm. It is found that the heat exchanges have time to do.

With the use of a multiplier, we can transform
power at low speed and high torque produced by the piston, in
power at high speed and low torque used by the alternator.


   It must be remembered that, for example, the mechanical efficiency of the series of gears from a large machine is approximately 97 or 98%.

A multiplier with an efficiency of 98%: HERE.

   So speed rotation is not a problem, just get a torque important enough for the whole to be effective.


   Several types of distributors are possible, for example rotary distributors or by valves or by solenoid valves.....
   Model of exchanger more efficient.

With heat exchanger with plates separated by flexible joints, hot and cold alternating with high-speed should be bearable by avoiding welds eg.

Examples of plates:

Examples of pressure:

with 0.1kg/cm² (~0.1bar), on one side with a single piston effect and one exchanger:
- on a 16cm diameter piston (~200cm²), the force is 20kg
- on a 50,5cm diameter piston (~2 000cm²), the force is 200kg

with 1kg/cm² (~1bar), on one side with a single piston effect and one exchanger:
- on a 16cm diameter piston (~200cm²), the force is 200kg
- on a 50,5cm diameter piston (~2 000cm²), the force is 2 000kg

Plates heat exchangers can withstand a pressure of several bars continuously.

It is too possible to use exchangers with tubes that can be improve by oval tubes.







IMPROVEMENT:
In this form, at least one fluid through a compression chamber where it is put under pressure by a pump or a turbine or a compressor or other means producing the same effect so that when the Input distributor releases the passage of fluid, the fluid is injected under pressure in the heat exchanger allowing heat exchange with a larger volume of fluid and with a more rapid change.
When the fluid in question is a liquid, it can not be compressed, the compression chamber then has a deformable part by varying the pressure or volume tight annexe that it can be compressed.
Particular forms of fluid conduits or out of the chamber compression can also participate in the pressurized fluid before it enters the heat exchanger.

Compress and relax gases will change the temperature at one point but the overall result of these two operations will be almost zero as the temperature variation of gas.
Double-acting piston.

   By having two heat exchangers can improve the operation by the simultaneous action on both sides of the piston is "pulled" and pushed.

A detailed operation is presented below.


Thermic solar panel, simple, inexpensive to produce, air circulating between a black background isolated, folded sheet and cut to obtain a large contact surface with air and double glazing.
The good panels of this type reach an output of 80%. Regardless, here, the ventilation that is only a few tens of watts.
A panel of 10m² can provide
12,000kwh/year more than 32 kWh (average) for 365 days each year.

It is also possible to usedes vacuum tube collectors with transfer to a liquid, more expensive, more complex but also to increase the temperature of several tens of degrees.

Especially effective in summer to create the hot fluid, the "cold" fluid being then the air out of the Canadian well at 13 or 15°C (55 or 59°F).

In winter, the 13°C (55°F) makes the hot air in relation to ambient air at 0°C (32°F).
In winter, it can also lead the air of the Provencal well through the solar panel to increase its temperature, even weakly, before being injected into the exchanger.

These changes can be done automatically with thermal switches and solenoid valves.



Comparing the periods of full operation of a wind turbine or electric solar panels, it seems that this machine should run longer and therefore provide more electricity for 24 hours and 365 days for a smaller investment to equal power.


          Comparison with the average electricity production in France by des          

photovoltaic panels

which is:    
103kWh/an/m²    that is to say 0.282 kWh/day/m²


"Demension of Canadian wells" and power to see here on page 8:

834 kWh / year  recovered for the heating period of six months for a tube of Ø100mm 50m long and 2m deep.

For 10 tubes and for one year, the thermic energy exchanged is:
834 x 2 x 10 = ± 16,000 kWh that is to say about 44 kWh for each 365 days of the year.

Provided that, in the summer, the well absorbes energy as a source of cold but for the thermic engine there is always a thermic exchange with production of energy regardless of the direction of the exchange in the well . And for the well, it is "charging" for the winter, it stores calories.
And the well works when you arrange the ducts under a building before its construction.

Companies ensure Canadian wells 50 years, there is no reason why they do not last longer.

Canadian well + heat panel (10m²) =
16,000kWh + 12,000kWh = 28,000kWh/year
that is to say 76 kWh/day

To be at average production of electricity in France of
10m² of photovoltaic panels (2.825 kWh/day, 1,031kWh/year),
would require that the engine has an output of 3.72% (x 1.05 to reflect an output of 95% of the electric generator) = 3.9%

Should be able to do much better.

An electrical efficiency of 10% would make
7.6 kWh/day  (2,800 kWh/year)  (per 10m² of panels)

AND it is 68 kWh/day   of heat energy used for another purpose.

           In cogeneration with warm fluid recovery (40-60 °C)( 104-140°F) output,           
for the floor heating and / or hot water or industrial use,
either directly, through a heat exchanger or a heat pump,
one can expect an overall output around 90%.

Although it is more accurate to speak of efficiency rather than output.





Using the example of a piston of Ø 16cm and a 16cm stroke:


V1/T1 = V3/T3
V = volume in liters or cubic decimeters
T = temperature in Kelvin degrees 15°C (59°F)= 288 K and 100°C (212°F) = 373 K
V3 = V1 T3/T1
V3 = V1 + V2
V2 = 0.8dm x 0.8 x 3.14 x 1.6 = 3.2 dm³ (or liters)
T3/T1 = 373/288 = 1.3
1.3V1 - V1 = 3.2 dm³
V1 = 3.2/0.3 = 10.8 dm³
V3 = 10.8 + 3.2 = 14 dm³ (values are rounded)






A   At the same resting pressure of 1 bar inside and outside balance.

B    At identical volume, heating V1 from 15°C (59°F)to 100°C (212°F),
the pressure increases from 1 bar to 1.3 bar.
The force exerted on the cylinder face is:
8cm x 8 x 3.14 = 200 cm² x 1.3 kg/cm² = 260 kg
On the other side, the piston supports the atmospheric pressure of 1 bar that is to say a force:
200cm² x 1 kg/cm² = 200 kg
The resultant is a force of 60 kg (260 - 200) on the inside of the piston.

C    When the piston moved up after stroke at constant temperature, with a larger volume, the pressure has fallen to 1 bar and there is an equilibrium with atmospheric pressure.
The piston is no more pushed.

D    At identical volume, while cooling from 100°C (212°F) to 15°C (59°F),
the pressure increases from 1 bar to 0.77bar.
Inner force is
200 cm² x 0.77 kg/cm² = 154 kg
The external force being unchanged, 200 kg, the piston returns to its original position,
pushed by a force of 46 kg (200 - 154).

The forces are different, but we see that the piston works in both directions.

Presentation deliberately simplified because the gas temperature does not instantly for example 15°C (59°F) to 100°C (212°F) although this operation can be very fast between the plates.
In this particular use, the nature of the plates, their surface, their thickness should be studied more carefully than for a conventional use of a heat exchanger continuously. Copper (copper-nickel) will give the best thermal conductivity.

When we do without the Canadian well, it must be to increase the surface of heat solar pannels or provide thermic energy by another means to have the use of enough energy to be converted.
Force exerted on the piston with this setup and a difference of
70°C (126°F) (100 - 30°C (212 - 86°F)in summer and 70 - 0°C (158 - 32°F) in winter) that is to say 373 K/303 K = 1.24 on average
-> difference in pressure with the outside: 0.24 kg/cm² (1.24 - 1):
200cm² x 0.24kg/cm² = 48kg
and back force with 0.81 kg/cm² that is to say a differential pressure with the outside (which is 1kg/cm² ~1bar) 1 - 0.81 = 0.19 kg/cm²:
200cm² x 0.19kg/cm² = 38kg




          We can plan to associate this device to a hybrid vehicle to extract heat from the cooling combustion engine and/or from its exhaust system and turn it into electricity
to recharge at least partially the battery of the vehicle,
the cooling being effected by the air.
The fuel consumption can be so reduced.

Example: for a car consuming 7 l / 100 fuel and having an average output of 20%, 1.4 liters of fuel is used for propulsion, 5.6 l (7 - 1.4) go into heat.
For exhaust from 400 to 600°C (750 to 1,110°F), the gases are recovered at 450°C (840°F),
the efficiency heat recovery of the machine is so high, especially if the temperature of exhaust gas decreases enough as moisture vapor gives all his heat energy,
- an output of 40% saves 5.6 x 40% = 2.24 ~ 2 l/100km
,
provided that use enough the electric motor to consume as electrical energy conversion from thermic energy recovered.

Others Benefits:
- for a diesel engine, reducing gas temperature exhaust reduces the formation of oxides of nitrogen,
- can enter more easily into the emission standards more stringent,
- have electric power continuously reduces the size of the traction battery costly and heavy,
- a saving of 2 l/100km matches 15kW electric (~ 20ch) from more power with more torque at low revs, thanks to the electric motor to assist the combustion engine, more flexibility and efficiency, lower speed changes at low speed while driving.

Example of a double acting piston,
the same facilities and a second heat exchanger:


E   At rest pressures identical within each exchanger balance.
200 cm² x 0.885 kg/cm² = 177 kg

F   Heating one side of piston causes it to move to the cold side, with a reduced force as initially warm side volume is already "expanded".


G   Arriving at the end of the stroke, the pressures are equal on each side of the piston which is in a rest that will not last because at this moment the cold side is heated and the pressure increases (where H).


H   After starting, the operation actually starts here with the forces at work in actual use, 260kg - 154kg =
106 kg applied to the piston in either direction
(max force but not continuous, the force increases to 106kg, then decreases until 0kg, again from 0kg to 106kg in the other direction).

As we apply an ignition advance for internal combustion engines, it will be useful in applying an advance of the temperature changes by the distributor before the piston reaches the end of the stroke so there is less response time to leave in the other direction with more force.

We can also provide valves in the end cylinder to control pressure changes, although it complicates the device.


It is found that the engine operates at low temperature and low pressure when compared for example to a Stirling engine.
This implies a simplified technology.



On the level of industrial use...

    Imagine a 20,000 m² hypermarket, as there, covered with thermic solar panels, magnitude of the maximum power of the installation:
20,000m² x 1kW/m² x 0.8 (80% panel output) x 0.1 (10% machine output) =
        1,600kW  (1.6 MW) COLOR="#FF0000">electric at midday, peak,
                        and it remains 14,400kW  (14.4MW) thermic usable by cogeneration (district heating, reinjected into the machine to a different level of temperature feedback in panels, industrial cold ...).
         Here also we can cool with the ambient air or install under the car park a big size Canadian well which increases the output, which also , permit to provide more energy.


.
                Combined with the deep geothermal:
                                  to 300°F and more.



Without fossil energy source, it is possible to have both electrical and thermal energy as needed with only two inexhaustible sources of energy on a human scale, geothermal and solar.

In this case, between 60°F and 250°F, the theoretical output is 24% for electricity production, plus the recovery of thermal energy in cogeneration.

Here is a possible arrangement in collective use:

1 A pumping means
2 is going up hot water from a layer of water by a first drilling
3 which optionally passes through a thermic solar panel
4 and supplies the device
5 the cold source can be a Canadian well (geothermal) or ambient air or another source
6 which generates electricity by an electric generator
7 which is transported by an electrical network
8 for powering buildings in common use,
+ recharging electric cars (14).
9 at the output device (4), the water is about 120°F, which allows overall heat exchanger or multiple (one per building) to provide hot water between 105 and 120°F in addition to heating.
10 cold water back into the layer of water to warm up again
11 by a second drilling.
12 One could possibly recover at least part of the outgoing water
13 to extract more heat energy by a heat pump (HP which consumes power when the device produces).

Electric energy
          + thermal energy 24 hours a day for each 365 days of the year


          Example of representation among others possibilities:
- Speed expected 100rpm ­(another speeds are possible, we must choose the speed best suited based on the materials used, the rate of heat transfer and the fluids, especially in the enclosure.)
- Piston Ø: 16cm (0.16m)
- Stroke: 16cm (0.16m)
- distributor disk
- size of the plates (arbitrarily): 60cm x 60cm (0.6m)
- piston stroke B in 0.3 s that is to say 0.16 m / 0.3 s = 0.533m/s = 1.92km/h
- thickness of the distributor: 10cm (0.1 meters)
- speed of movement of fluid (hot or cold) between plates: A = 0.55m by 0.3s
     0.45m + 0.1m / 0.3s = 1.83m/s = 6.6km/h
     It is the minimum speed de circulation, of movement, greater speed allows more exchanges between the plates and fluids.

The hot fluid is air here, although steam is more effective even at relatively low temperature, after turning a turbine, through the operation of the machine even with a small temperature difference.
The hot fluid H is shown in pink to allow its identification with the sealed chamber, to be exact, it would be anything in red.

The distributor disk is shown in extreme position even though its position is determined according to the advance relative to the extreme positions of the piston.

The distributor disc and the engine run at the same speed.

If the disk is electrically connected non-directly to the motor, it is the speed of the disc that determines the engine speed to maximum speed that can reach the engine.

The extractor is not essential but it improves the operation.

Dimensions of the machine are one order of magnitude. Other arrangement of the elements would allow a smaller volume.
For example, the cylinder and the piston can largely be inserted in the exchanger with plates form adapted.

















             The structure keeping the plates is not represented.
In this configuration, the disk valve is opened 90° to let the hot and cold fluids alternately.
At first glance one might think that the distribution will take place according to figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 with dead time significant at 2 and 4 that would eliminate half the time, the action of fluids.
In fact, as shown in Figures 5 to 9 for the hot side, each fluid is introduced, at least partially, for almost 270°.

For the efficiency of the movement of fluid is maximized, it must find, as each machine, a compromise between the pressure exerted by the compressor (and energy absorbed) and overall efficiency observed.





Generating electricity from solar energy is involved in the fight against global warming:
- Both because it takes heat to convert it into electricity,                  
- And because the electricity does not add heat from a hydrocarbon
or greenhouse gas emissions to be produced.


The availability of many cheap energy is the future not only for transportation, for our comfort and for all uses that we know
... also ...
for others new applications, for example, provide fresh water, transporting it, producing fresh water from sea water ...
See HERE an example of this test sheeting to keep a glacier ice and the water reserve it represents.



Comparison and differences with a Stirling engine
Functioning on both engines by hot gas (and cold),                          
Possibility to operate in cogeneration, producing electricity + heating

STIRLING engine

     
NEW engine

- Operating at high temperature, 700°C (1,290°F)or more for " industrial " use and not only as a toy




- for solar heating, need to concentrate the rays with mirrors or a parabola,


- operating at high pressure (about 150 bar)
- 4-stroke engine which only 1 is a power stroke,

- contact surface of heating and cooling restricted to surfaces cylinders and pistons


- output: up to 40% at 700°C (1,290°F)

- relatively complex and expensive to do,

- versions with oil heating or derived from plants.


- low temperature, operating with less than 100°C (212°F) difference of temperature.
(the heat from the cooling system of an internal combustion engine and/or its exhaust system, can be used as a source of heat),

- the solar collector is very simple; use of a parabola is possible, increasing the power available, for example, always with a piston diameter is 16cm ~ 200cm²:
Temperature 15 - 100°C (59 - 212°F) -> 373/288 K = 1.3 0.3 kg/cm² x 200cm² = useful force = 60kg
Temperature 15 - 400°C (59 - 750°F) -> 673/288 K = 2.33 1.33 kg/cm² x 200 cm² = useful force = 266kg
Temperature 15 - 700°C (59 - 1,290°F) -> 973/288 K = 3.37 2.37 kg/cm² x 200 cm² = useful force = 474kg

- operating at low pressure, a few tenths of a bar to 2.5 bar maximum with a parabola,
- 2-stroke engine which 2 are power strokes,

- with the same engine, the heat exchanger allows the contact surfaces and heat exchanges much larger and more effective than just the surface of the cylinder and the piston,


- according to use, from 15 to 40% or more.

- it's easy to build the machine, even the heat exchanger is part of normal industrial production,

- heating alternatives to oil or no oil with renewable energy without pollution,

- possibility of deep geothermal power (layers of warm water).





The overall electrical output:
To increase the electrical output of the machine can be recovered, at least, part of the warm fluid from the machine after passing through heat exchangers to extract a portion of the heat which has not been exploited.

At the escape of the device (1) a portion of the fluid is distributed in (4) recovered and possibly accelerated by a pump (3) then passes into the heating means which is here a thermal solar panel (2) before returning the device (1) at a temperature increasing gradually as the operation.








We can also supply the system by selecting only hot fluid leaving when it's warmer thanks to the dispatcher position (7) which will increase its temperature to several tens of degrees (9) and therefore the temperature difference with cold fluid (10) where the temperature does not change.

The hot fluid (6) which is taken from the time (z) can be temporarily stored in a tank as (5) to have this fluid constantly.

The remainder of the fluid discharged when the distributor is in position (8) can be here, too, operated in cogeneration.







The diagram of temperature according to time shows the passage in the heat exchanger of hot fluid (a) in the intervals (A) (C) and (E), the cold fluid in the intervals (B) and (D).
(b) = variation of the temperature of the fluid supplied to the engine through the sealed enclosure.
(x) and (y) are reference lines for engine starting.
(c) = change in temperature of fluid leaving.
(d) and (e) show the increase of the temperature of hot fluid from the start until a thermal equilibrium later.
(f) = passage of cold fluid, here ambient air.
(z) = time when the outgoing hot fluid is recovered.
         Heat exchangers with 3 separate circuits.
Principle: The hot fluid does not mix with the cold fluid which allows the use of two different fluids such as steam and air and create a closed circuit at least for the hot fluid which we can recover a part of the thermal energy output of the device and re-inject the input of warm, heated again after this fluid.
It's the equivalent of regeneration in other engines.

Further up the page there is shown another type of regeneration in which the two fluids mix in the same circuit.

The inlet distributor (1) provided by the valve (2) can either heat the chamber (3) by the passage of hot fluid in (4) or cooled by the passage of the cold fluid (5).




With here the example of a plates heat exchanger, the efficiency is increased by a large number of plates and it is possible to have at least one closed circuit for fluids, the heat here.


Another use of the machine:


associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant

                                                     
          The potential to operate with sufficient performance to "low" difference of temperature can help turn some of the heat removed and lost by a nuclear power plant operation, into electrical energy.

          The output of a nuclear power plant is between 30 and 35%, thus a power plant rejects wasted, into the environment, enormous quantities of thermal energy which could be partially transformed into electrical energy thus increasing the overall efficiency of the plant and reducing its emissions of steam which must be offset by pumping water, usually in rivers:
          By processing all the waste heat and given the temperatures in question, we can expect an output of 10-20% about the conversion into electricity being in addition to the production of the conventional nuclear power plant.
           more electricity generated 24 hours a day
           less water consumed
           less warming of the environment

          ...And like any other heat source, one can think of exploiting the heat energy from the reactor only by such machines cascaded over several levels of temperatures.

Succinct functioning of a pressurized water nuclear power plant: into a containment (1) a nuclear reactor (2) heating the pressurized water flowing through a primary circuit (3) and that provides the heat energy to at least one steam generator (4) which converts water to its circuit, the secondary circuit (5), in which pressurized steam drives turbines (6) by the expansion of this vapor that returns in the form of water (7) to the steam generator (4). The condenser (8) cools the steam from the turbine and condenses it with a tertiary circuit (9) in which circulates a cooling fluid, here water flowing through a pump (10). The water flowing in the tertiary circuit (9) cools the condenser (8) while warming then it is cooled in this version, by a wet cooling tower (11). Part of the tertiary circuit water (9) which is evaporated and discharged through the cooling tower (11) is replaced by water from outside the station and part of the water contained in the air cooler (11) is rejected. In other versions the tertiary circuit can be cooled by water only example of a river or water pumped by the sea. In order to simplify the representation of the operation, the heating circuits and low-pressure turbines are not considered nor represented.

In association with a nuclear device, the tertiary circuit is split into two circuits with the first (12) cools the steam in the condenser by a pump means such as (13) and the second circuit that can be compared to a quaternary system (14) cools the water flowing through the same means designed for the nuclear, here a wet cooling tower (11). The device (15), whatever the version, is on a different scale from that of other elements of the nuclear plant. The inlet distributor (16) passes alternately hot fluid from the condenser and leaving cooled and the cold fluid from the cooling tower and starting again warmed. The engine drives at least an electric generator which provides electric power to a very high voltage through the transformer, not shown. Here, at least the same amount of electricity is generated by nuclear power and more, at least one other electrical generator as (17) produces electricity distributed to users by the same line or high voltage another line such as (18).
Means of connections not shown for connecting directly to the circuit (12) circuit (14) to bypass the area of the device in case of breakdown or maintenance thereof.
The device of the invention associated with a thermal power plant, at a nuclear plant, can have a low output because of the small difference between the extreme temperatures of the cooling system that is here the tertiary circuit. However the amount of energy released into the environment by the plant is so great that even a poor performance enables significant power generation by the associated device.

The advantages of the combination of the device at a power plant:
- Less water consumption for cooling,
- The water is released at a lower temperature which is in line with standards for the protection of the environment, especially in hot season,
- Creation of a quaternary cooling circuit which can increase security for a nuclear power plant
- Increase the efficiency of turbines of the plant,
- Additional production of electricity.

Other forms of association are possible even more efficient by using a heater.
A possible arrangement of several devices associated, here with tubular heat exchangers, motors with different positions shifted in time to absorb or eliminate the effects of cuts on the fluid feeding conduits (1) and ( 2) and the different positions of distributors of entry as (3) or (4).




In red, the heat exchanger (5) receives the hot fluid, the fluid cools off again by the pipes, the arrow indicating the direction of travel of the piston engine matching, whereas in this phase, the cold fluid is not flowing in pipes of this heat exchanger.




One of the other devices, including another engine begins to miss the cold fluid, the fluid off again warmed. Conduits for the hot fluid does not conduct hot fluid, for now, in the heat exchanger (6).








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