Internal combustion engine without piston, less polluting waste.

Internal combustion engine without piston

with multiple ignitions and staggered in space and in time

----- less pollutant emissions -----

This page is optimized for a screen of about 17 inches. Thus explanations are near each drawing.

The device comprises a compressor (1) which compresses air (2) taken into the environment to introduce it into the precombustion chamber (3). A valve (4), separates the precombustion chamber (3) from the combustion chamber (6). This valve (4), when open, permit for maximum passage of fluids contained in (3) thanks to a maximum aperture.
When the valve (4), is closed, the air pressure increases in the prechamber (3). When the valve (4), opens under the action of the actuator (5), the air is quickly introduced into the combustion chamber (6), mixes with fuel supplied via a conduit (8) to an injector (7), located in the combustion chamber (6), open and injecting fuel at the right time, and the air / fuel mixture gradually fills the combustion chamber. Then the valve (4) is controlled to close.
As shown, the actuator (5) is electrical but the valve can also be actuated by a mechanical drive (31) linked to the rotation of the turbine (11).
The air / fuel mixture does not escape immediately from the other end of (6) because there is a little pressure in the combustion of the previous cycle, and to this end the gas outlet is constricted and the cycle is very fast.
An electronic computer, controls the operation of the set and therefore the ignition in the combustion chamber when the air / fuel mixture fills at best.
The mixture is then compressed relatively, but then, it is known that the performance of this combustion is higher when the pressure is high.

To increase the pressure of the mixture, ignition occurs several times
in a very short time managed by the computer. Several solutions can be used. For example, in a first step, the spark plugs (9 A) at the gas outlet side, turn the air / fuel mixture begins to burn with heat and increasing the volume of all fluids present which has the effect, firstly, to start making out some of the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber (10) and, secondly, to compress the rest of the air / fuel mixture in the combustion chamber and not yet ignited.
Other spark plugs ignite then this part of the mixture which is strongly compressed at a time managed by the computer in one or several successive ignitions for the same cycle and the same volume of mixture. Ignition for combustion of the same fuel / air mixture volume can be done once, twice, three times or more than three times depending on the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel used.
The air / fuel mixture is in all cases a poor mixture, it is managed in such a way that in no case can be explosive which could damage the device. It is in all cases of which the combustion flame speed is low compared to the speed of propagation of a detonation. This relatively low speed of the combustion propagation permit to manage combustion with several ignitions in the same cycle, for the same volume of air / fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.
The expansion of the burnt gases or during combustion in the combustion chamber made out under pressure (10) and arrive in a turbine (11) through which they pass by transmitting their input energy which results in rotating the turbine (11) which mechanically drives (30) rotating the compressor (1), and at least one further device to which it supplies mechanical energy (29) as an electric generator (12) which transforms mechanical energy received into usable electrical energy to the accessories of the device and / or for use outside of the device.

In the operation of a four-stroke direct-injection engine, it is known that a significant portion of exhaust emissions is due to the oil on the walls of the liners and the projected fuel, particularly on the pistons, because of their poor combustion to the walls regardless of the fineness of the droplets of the injected fuel.

In this device, one of the objects is to minimize the possibility that the fuel is deposited on the walls.
Illustrated in detail, a guide (15) guides the fuel injected by the injector (7) such that a portion of pressurized air (19) drives the fuel but without touching the walls of the combustion chamber while forming the air / fuel mixture. Another portion of the pressurized air (18) passes around the guide (15) so that it also contributes to separate said mixture of the wall (16) of the combustion chamber. More elaborate shapes like those of (49) are more efficient.
Did we need a piston, with all the rubbing and output losses through the valves to compress the air / fuel mixture ?

Some improvements:

In a variant of the device, the prechamber (44) has a larger volume than in other versions due to its greater length and / or by a larger section, of its inner cavity, from the air inlet side from the compressor rather than the side of the air outlet in contact with the valve (4).
This feature makes it possible to compress a large volume of air in the precombustion chamber while the valve (4) is closed and to inject air into the combustion chamber at a pressure which remains high in spite of the sudden increase in the volume to be filled in the combustion chamber when the valve (4) opens.
The compressor (45) has the characteristics suitable for this purpose.

In another variant, the device comprising a duct (26) permitting the flow of fuel in the prechamber (3), to at least one injector (24), open at the proper time managed by said computer, fuel which will form a part of the air / fuel mixture to be burned in the combustion chamber.
A guide (25) guides the fuel injected by the injector (24) such that a portion of the air (2) introduced into the precombustion chamber (3) drives the fuel but without touching, or as little as possible, the wall of the valve (4), open in this phase, or the wall of the combustion chamber (16).

In a variant of the device, at least one of elements such as (32) of the ignition means is a means using a laser beam.
In the combustion chamber (6), without piston, without obstacle, the radius of action of each laser is predetermined for optimum results; and the optional laser (32) disposed substantially in the axis of the combustion chamber has either a short radius to ignite the air / fuel mixture into one of the possibilities of multiple phases of the ignition switch or a long radius to ignite the mixture towards the axis of the combustion chamber, thereby compressing the mixture between the combustion zone which begins and the wall of the combustion chamber or to a combustion that continues or by at least one further additional ignition by laser (9), all of which are here also managed by the computer.
Lasers permit for more targeted ignition in space and time than conventional sparking plugs.

Injection of water or steam into the precombustion chamber (44) through an inlet of the fluid through a conduit (42) which feeds a dispersion means (43) permits a better combustion, lower consumption fuel and a decrease in the amount of pollutants released, a reduction in NOx emissions. Skilfully handled, the condensation of the steam improves the efficiency of the turbine.
The injection of water or steam, may be formed in the combustion chamber.
At least a portion of the water or the water vapor injected into the precombustion chamber and / or in the combustion chamber results from the cooling (17) of the wall (16) of the combustion chamber that directly or indirectly heats the water, which can be converted into steam.

In another embodiment, the device is identical to that of the first version with two differences, on the one hand, the presence of a second valve (20) which opens and closes the fluid passage, those coming out of the combustion chamber, the actuation of which is related to that of the valve (4), represented here mechanically by (21), the synchronization of the two valves can be electric and managed by the computer, on the other hand , the shape of the openings for the passage of fluids (22) and (23). The presence of the second valve (20) makes it possible a first greater compression of the air / fuel mixture in the combustion chamber before it is ignited.
The different elements that make up the device are shown without specifically representing an operating phase.
The openings for fluid passages (22) and (23) are shaped to pass as easily as possible fluids therethrough while having shapes permiting the synchronization of actions in a cycle.
Thus the two valves are closed during the ignition and combustion of the air / fuel mixture and the passage opening (23) of the valve (20) is connected to the passage opening (22) of the valve (4) for the supply of air from the precombustion chamber with or without a time lag.

Some thoughts:
- Standards are increasingly restrictive in automotive pollution.
- These constraints lead to the production of four-stroke engines increasingly complex and expensive to purchase and maintain.
- In this new engine, more fuel can be used, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohols, combustible gases. One can even use two fuels, one after the other or simultaneously to change the result of the combustion.
- Lasers can be used with long rays to ignite the mixture under multiple conditions that can be chosen.
- This engine operates at substantially constant speed, consuming and polluting the least and provides power to an electric vehicle or as a means of occasional emergency and thus range extender or as continuous power supplier.
- Regarding the two examples of electrically powered cars, knowing that an electric car consumes 15-25 kWh per 100 km depending on its weight and aerodynamics, the power of the proposed motors enables acceleration times and suitable even if most of time it is a small percentage of their rated power that is used. then allowing the battery to recharge while running,
- This invention is not limited to the cars applications, it also makes it possible to produce electricity to feed the electrical networks.
The engine presented in the context of this invention is not yet commercialized.

LINK: To get an accurate idea of the interaction between combustion and fuel depot on the walls of combustion engines concerning the level of the pollutant emissions and their causes:
" Étude expérimentale du comportement et de l'évaporation d'un film liquide combustible en présence d'une flamme "
presented by Nicolas BORGETTO (INSA LYON)

Other information: the text of the patent.